Dating ideas goethe

Shakespeare’s sources came under new and intense scrutiny.

Elmer Edgar Stoll, in (1933), stressed the ways in which the plays could be seen as constructs intimately connected with their historical environment.

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Kott’s deeply ironic view of the political process impressed filmmakers and theatre directors such as Sidebar: Viewing Shakespeare on Film; Sidebar: Shakespeare and Opera.) He also caught the imagination of many academic critics who were chafing at a modern political world increasingly caught up in image making and the various other manipulations of the powerful new media of television and electronic communication.

A number of the so-called Stephen Greenblatt, Stephen Orgel, and Richard Helgerson) read avidly in cultural anthropology, learning from Clifford Geertz and others how to analyze literary production as a part of a cultural exchange through which a society fashions itself by means of its political ceremonials.

Samuel Johnson also edited Shakespeare’s works (1765), defending his author as one who “holds up to his readers a faithful mirror of manners and of life”; but, though he pronounced Shakespeare an “ancient” (supreme praise from Johnson), he found Shakespeare’s plays full of implausible plots quickly huddled together at the end, and he deplored Shakespeare’s fondness for punning.

Even in his defense of Shakespeare as a great English writer, Johnson lauded him in classical terms, for his universality, his ability to offer a “just representation of general nature” that could stand the test of time.

Shakespeare wrote too glibly, in Jonson’s view, mixing kings and clowns, lofty verse with vulgarity, mortals with fairies.

decorum, in Dryden’s view, largely because he had written for an ignorant age and poorly educated audiences.

Shakespeare excelled in “fancy” or imagination, but he lagged behind in “judgment.” He was a native genius, untaught, whose plays needed to be extensively rewritten to clear them of the impurities of their frequently vulgar style.

And in fact most productions of Shakespeare on the London stage during the Restoration did just that: they rewrote Shakespeare to make him more refined.

During his own lifetime and shortly afterward, Shakespeare enjoyed fame and considerable critical attention.

The English writer Francis Meres, in 1598, declared him to be England’s greatest writer in comedy and tragedy.

Playacting depends on conventions, which must be understood in their historical context.

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